There are other projects that have explored financing models for land development and shared mobility services. Here we highlight one in Denmark and three in Sweden. In Copenhagen, Denmark, political decisions and commercial operations enabled the development of a new urban area. The projects Density and S3 in Gothenburg, Sweden, explore how shared mobility services can be used to increase the value of facilities. In Barkaby, Sweden, the effects of improved efficiency in public transport caused by self-driving vehicles are explored. These projects represent a variety of how financial models for shared mobility could be designed.
The information about the projects is collected from project websites, project reports, and interviews with Anne Faxér, project leader for Density and S3, and Håkan Karlsson, public transport representative in Barkaby project.
In 2007 in Copenhagen, the CPH City & Port Corporation was founded, with the aim to manage publicly owned land and assets in the area in the most profitable way. The corporation is publicly owned but governed as a private company. When the local government rezoned the previous port area to residential and commercial use, the CPH City & Part corporation could realize the increased value of the land and invest the profit into a new metro line in the area and other developments. This further increased the value of the land. The case is fully described in this report and the current development is described on this website.
The Density project in Gothenburg, Sweden, explores the opportunities brought by a Mobility as a Service (MaaS) solution, offered primarily to facility owners (for private housing). In turn, the facility owners offer the MaaS solution to their customers, instead of parking places. The users can fulfill their transport needs, and the facility owners can use the former parking spaces for further housing or other facilities.
In the S3 project in Gothenburg, Sweden, a self-driving shuttle service is deployed in a business area. The project aims at improving public transport in the area, and to reduce the need for parking places. Various facility owners and companies are active in the area, and users are typically workers, students, and visitors. To find financial models that satisfy this blend of stakeholders and actors, and their different needs, has shown to be challenging, and the project is working on finding solutions through collaborative workshops.
In Barkaby, Sweden, self-driving shuttles have been deployed as a part of public transport in a newly developed urban area (new housing and workplaces, new metro line). The municipality has the aim to provide sustainable, shared mobility to the new citizens and reduce car dependency, and the public transport authority participated to enable and test self-driving shuttles as a part of public transport. The project members describe the collaboration between the municipality, the public transport authority, and the mobility operators as a key success factor. See also this seminar about the project.