The European Typology of Homelessness and Housing Exclusion is the most workable and widely-used framework for defining these concepts in Europe. It describes four main living situations that constitute homelessness and housing exclusion: rooflessness, houselessness, insecure housing and inadequate housing.
A Snapshot of Homelessness & Housing Exclusion in Europe in 2020
The 5th Overview of Housing Exclusion in Europe finds that at least 700,000 people are sleeping rough or in emergency/temporary accommodation on any one night in the European Union, 70% more than a decade ago.
One in ten households spent over 40% of their income on housing costs in the EU in 2018. 15.5% of households lived in overcrowded conditions, 13.9% lived in damp housing, 4% experienced severe housing deprivation, with unfit housing conditions remaining a harsh reality, particularly in Eastern European countries. Housing inequalities between poor and non-poor households are on the rise: poor households are eight times more likely to be overburdened by housing costs than non-poor households. Housing costs for poor tenants increased between 2008 and 2018 in almost all EU countries.
Children are particularly vulnerable to housing exclusion, specifically to overcrowding - 21.9% of all children concerned - and cold housing - 15.6% of all children concerned. People with an activity limitation1 , especially young people, are more likely to be overburdened by housing costs and to experience severe housing deprivation.
Homelessness & the Covid-19 Crisis
The 5th Overview was drafted during the ongoing Covid-19 crisis. This pandemic has thrown into sharp relief that fact that housing is a key determinant of health. The unprecedented health crisis has been a disproportionate threat and burden for those deprived of dignified, adequate housing. This includes all people facing homelessness and housing exclusion, a growing proportion of whom are refugees and asylum seekers.
In the context of the public health crisis, many public authorities have taken exceptional measures to protect these people. Temporary accommodation has been provided for a significant part of the homeless population in several EU countries and street homelessness in many contexts has fallen dramatically. Given a sense of urgency, political will and resources can be mobilised to end homelessness. Covid-19 could prove a turning point for public policy. Housing ministries in the Netherlands, in Wales, and officials from Brussels, Lyon, Paris, Barcelona, Madrid, and London already announced plans along these lines2 .
Homelessness and Asylum in the EU
The Fifth Overview analyses EU reception and accommodation systems and the links between asylum and homelessness. The proportion of asylum seekers and people under international protection among the homeless population has increased significantly over the last ten years, in all EU countries where data was available, including Greece, Ireland, Sweden, Denmark, Finland, Italy, the Netherlands, Germany, Spain, Belgium, the United Kingdom, and France.
The report shows that reception and accommodation systems in the EU are failing to protect vulnerable people from homelessness. Of course, the situation is very different in different contexts. Some countries at Europe’s external border, such as Greece and Italy, have been subject to exceptional pressure. As arrival countries – both first line and transit – they bear the consequences of a lack of coordination and solidarity at EU level. Once protection has been granted, people continue to struggle to access decent and affordable housing. Housing options for refugees are often limited and inadequate. Financial inaccessibility, competitiveness and discrimination – characteristics of housing markets across the European Union – are barriers to housing, with some having no choice than to turn to the black market, makeshift homes, or the streets, with all the risks and damage to fundamental rights that this entails.
Respecting procedure deadlines, adapting reception measures to people's profiles, properly identifying, and taking account of vulnerabilities, promoting integration and independence are all ways to guarantee an effective right to asylum3. With its common asylum and immigration legislation, the EU has laid the basis for harmonising reception conditions across Member States. Unfortunately, the leeway within this legislation has led, not towards top-down harmonisation, but the opposite. At every stage of the asylum process and even once protection is granted, people are denied the right to adequate housing.
The way forward in the EU
Homelessness is not a fact of life. EU governments could end homelessness by 2030, in line with the UN Sustainable Development Agenda and the European Pillar of Social Rights. Covid-19 can and should provide a turning point. The Recovery Package could help channel the necessary resources into achieving this. Homelessness can only be ended if the current failures of asylum and immigration policies are addressed. Cities, on the front line of the fight against homelessness, have a critical role to play, in partnership with regional, national and EU policymakers. FEANTSA and the Fondation Abbé Pierre recommend in their annual report that the European Commission launches an EU Framework on Ending Homelessness as part of the action plan on the European Pillar or Social Rights in 2021. This should involve a firm political commitment to ending homelessness by 2030; mechanisms to monitor homelessness and homelessness policies across the EU; mobilization of the EU budget; exchange of practices; support to scale-up Housing First and a guarantee that the right to housing be protected in the exceptional measures taken following the COVID-19 health crisis.
1 Activity limitation according to Eurostat is a dimension of health/disability capturing long-standing limitation in the performance of usual activities (due to health problems) https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php/Glossary:Activity_limitation. This indicator refers to the population aged over 16 years, as ‘usual activities’ include work-related activities.
2 FEANTSA’s 2020 #hotelstohomes campaign aims to put pressure on public authorities across Europe to use the work already done in accommodating homeless people during coronavirus confinement as a springboard to providing them with long-term solutions : https://www.feantsa.org/en/campaign/2020/05/27/hotels-to-homes-the-time-for-permanent-solutions-is-now?bcParent=419
3 See also UIA’s 2019 report on Migrants and refugees integration https://www.uia-initiative.eu/sites/default/files/2019-07/Migrants%26Refugees_v5_WEB.pdf