To influence behaviour, transport planners must therefore take account of a wide range of interrelated physical and motivational factors. Shifting people towards sustainable modes such as public transport, walking or cycling, can take time and can be a gradual process for individuals but also for communities and societies. Individuals need to assess whether an alternative is beneficial to them from a cost and convenience point of view. Crucially, a new behaviour must also result in a positive experience for it to take hold. If the experience is negative, then the reaction may not be the one desired.
Consider therefore the complexity of offering ‘seamless multimodal services’ and the potential for negative experiences. To get it right, numerous policies must pull in the right direction if they are not to result in new, unanticipated barriers. Policymakers need to recognise the unique roles that individual transport modes play and how they are connected to each other. This is key to the effort to encourage a modal shift away from private cars because alternatives have to be convenient and seamless for them to be attractive. Mobility policies must therefore consider the whole journey experience, from the journey planning phase, to getting to the point of departure – for example, the train station – to completing the last mile leg of the journey.