In the EU, 43% of the population live in a NUTS 3 region that lost population due to a natural reduction between 2005 and 2015. Whereas, almost a third of the EU population, 31%, live in a region that lost population due to net outward migration, i.e. more people leaving the region than people entering the region, between 2005 and 2015. The biggest reductions occurred in regions where there was both a natural population decline and a net outward migration ( see for further details Seventh Report on Economic, Social and Territorial Cohesion) . On the contrary, capital metropolitan regions have experienced population growth. At the level of cities, many non-capital, small and medium-sized cities in the EU are facing decrease in population in the last decades, i.e. shrinking cities. The graph below shows the change in population in EU cities, as defined by EUROSTAT, in the period 2012-2017. The phenomenon is affecting in general the EU, and in particular countries in East Europe and in South Europe.